Effective professional development is flexible, based around teachers busy schedules and includes ongoing support and coaching. It is most effective when teachers are engaged in active learning experiences that are relevant to what they are currently teaching.
Professional Learning Communities provide this structure, giving teachers the time and space to work together on a common goal. Many school systems are adopting the PLC model so that schools can be places of learning, for both students and teachers. The key to improved learning for students is continuous job-embedded learning for educators. In the PLC, small groups of teachers should actively engage in these learning-centered, results-oriented activities:
- Collaborate to clarify and develop what each student must learn
- Monitor student work on a timely basis through the use of formative and benchmark assessments
- Develop systematic interventions to ensure students receive additional time and support for learning when they struggle
- Extend and enrich learning when students have already mastered the intended outcomes
- Engage in collective inquiry into best practices in teaching and in learning
- Share and Reflect on teaching practices and on students’ level of achievement
The benefits of the Professional Learning Community include increased teacher satisfaction, decreased teacher isolation and an overall improvement in teacher performance, but one of the biggest obstacles to the PLC is time. Busy teachers don’t always have time for face-to-face meetings where they can exchange in extensive collaboration. I believe technology alleviates this barrier of time, enhances the professional learning community and increases its chances for success.
Incorporating the use of digital tools to create an online or blended professional learning community allows for increased flexibility and efficiency as well as easy access to resources and materials. The Internet and mobile technologies provide teachers with opportunities to reflect and collaborate with each other and with experts outside their schools. They have access to information and other resources with few limitations of time, space or pace. Collaboration is what distinguishes online PLCs from online professional development.
Online or blended PLCs have further advantages over the traditional PLCs that include:
- Increased time and space for teachers to learn and collaborate
- Increased opportunities for teachers to connect with others that have similar learning goals and interests
- Easier access to resources that include digital artifacts, student records, and teacher work
- Professional mentoring for new teachers
- Ability for administrators and teachers to collect assessment data
1. Create a Community
It is extremely important that communication & reflection are supported. Members of the PLC must have an safe, web-based environment where they are able to share victories and failures, discuss and analyze student performance and assess what works and doesn't work. This can be done through discussion forums and social networks allowing the online community to be accessible anytime and anywhere.
Virtual meetings can be set up at specific times utilizing conferencing tools such as Skype, Google Hangout or Twitter. Discussion boards and blogs allow for more flexible communication in which teachers are not tied to a specific meeting time. Community discussion boards provide a space in which all members of the PLC can regularly contribute thoughts, ideas, and even questions around teaching practices. The discussion board should be a support group in which members are able to find instructional insights, solutions to obstacles, and gather strategies from like minded professionals.
The use of blogs within the PLC encourage reflection. When teachers blog about their instructional practices, they are able to reflect on successes and failures. Blogs provide a record of progress and document personal insights that might not otherwise be shared. Blogs might even become a place for teachers to publicly share original ideas and creative practices and then include these in a professional portfolio. With this in mind, it is important for PLC leaders to design activities that build community (allowing members to socialize) and promote-self reflection.
2. Foster Collaboration
An environment where teachers are able to submit and share curricular resources is necessary for a successful online PLC. An online repository should be developed so that users have the ability to upload files, add and edit content, and share materials with other members. It is especially important that this element allow for collaboration. Because the work of teachers is often isolated, opportunities for professional collaboration and co-creation should be nurtured.
Technology also has the ability to decrease the workload of teachers and allowing them to focus on improving practices and supporting students. The creation of digital lesson plans and curricular assets prevent teachers from recreating materials year after year. Collective creativity is supported when materials are developed collaboratively, drawing upon the expertise of multiple professionals. Teachers are able to collaborate, share and exchange information and views on best practices as they create digital assets. Collaboration tools such as Google Drive or Wikispaces might be a good place to start. These digital environments also allow for openness, transparency and accountability; but it is important that the culture of the PLC support collaboration and not competition.
3. Encourage Growth
“Education is a social process; education is growth; education is not preparation for life but is life itself.” John Dewey
Within an online PLC, leaders should provide professional development and learning opportunities while permitting autonomy. Teachers no are no longer limited to the resources provided in their school’s professional library. Mobile devices and the Internet make information readily available for everyone. Kleine-Kracht suggested that administrators, along with teachers, must be learners: questioning, investigating, and seeking solutions for school improvement. An online PLC can provide individualized, just in time professional development.
Members of the PLC are able to access webinars, podcasts, blogs, journal articles and online videos. Sites like Coursera and Udemy even offer free online courses that cover a multitude of topics. Twitter, Pinterest, and Facebook can be used to acquire and share ideas. Through the use of these tools, members should develop their own Personal Learning Network (PLN). This global network will enhance each member’s own learning as well as his or her contributions to the professional learning community. Subscribing to professional learning sites, blogs, wikis and twitter feeds allow members to customize their own professional learning path while creating a unique professional identity.
Creating an online or blended PLC requires a commitment by all members and begins with planning. The University of North Carolina provides three steps to consider as you begin planning:
- Determine your content goals and expectations.
- Choose a structure that will support you as you work toward your goals.
- Select tools that will help you create the structure you need.
As you follow these steps, focus on the concepts of community, collaboration, and growth. All professional learning communities have different needs and technology can provide unique opportunities to meet these needs. Technology becomes a burden when users are required to keep track of many different usernames and passwords or when digital tools are overly complicated or too complex. It is important that online PLCs don't become overwhelming for teachers.
Itslearning is an outstanding, user-friendly platform with a variety of easy to use tools ideal for the online PLC. Users are able to share and collaborate on resources including documents, presentations, and video, which can be uploaded, embedded, or created directly in the platform. RSS feed, Twitter feed, and other Web 2.0 content can also be embedded into customizable user interfaces. Because itslearning is web-based, there is no need to search app stores or worry with downloads. Teachers are able to access content on any web-based device using a single username and password.
- The course planner, multimedia tools, and integrated web 2.0 applications make it easy to vary instructional methods and create professional learning communities that include multimedia demonstrations, simulations, group projects, and visuals to make professional learning relevant.
- Text and video conferencing enables users to easily connect with each other or experts from around the world.
- Online discussion tools, blogs, and e-portfolios provide opportunities for PLC members to develop a stronger community and find their own voice.
- Mentoring roles enable leaders to provide timely and relevant feedback and inspiration.
- Blitz, Cynthia L. (2013) Can online learning communities achieve the goals of traditional professional learning communities? What the literature says. http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED544210.pdf
- Beach, R. (2012). Research and Policy: Can Online Learning Communities Foster Professional Development? Language Arts, 89(4). http://www.mcte.org/BeachLA.pdf
- Hord, S. M. (1997). Professional Learning Communities: Communities of Continuous Inquiry and Improvement. http://www.sedl.org/pubs/change34/plc-cha34.pdf
- Kornelis, Pat. “Professional Learning Communities.” http://homepages.dordt.edu/~kornelis/plc.htm
- Linton, Jayme. “Building and maintaining an online professional learning community.” http://www.learnnc.org/lp/pages/7012
- Center for CSRI. Elements that Define a PLC. http://www.centerforcsri.org/plc/elements.html